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State Tuition, Fees and Financial Assistance Policies, 2010-11
by Allison C. Bell, Hans L'Orange and Julie Carnahan, February 2011
This report is the seventh in a series of updates by SHEEO on this topic. This latest version is a comprehensive assessment of state policies related to public college and university tuition, fees, and financial assistance policies and provides the most current analysis of policies both undertaken and anticipated. The companion web section offers access to the individual response tables.
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VIEW SURVEY RESPONSES BY SPECIFIC SECTION (PDF)

Four-State Cost Study
by Sharmila Basu Conger, Allison C. Bell and Jeff Stanley, September 2010
As part of Lumina Foundation’s state productivity initiative in higher education, the State Higher
Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) hosted a discussion of state level higher education cost studies in
May 2008. After subsequent conversations with Jane Wellman, Executive Director of the Delta Cost
Project, and SHEEO representatives from four states with substantial cost study data over many years
(Florida, Illinois, New York-SUNY, and Ohio), a “meta-analysis” of data from those four states was
launched to explore some fundamental issues:
• By how much do costs vary among disciplines, levels of instruction, and types of institution?  
• Are these differences stable over time, or have they changed?
• Are these differences consistent among the four states?
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2010
SHEEO Staff, April, 2010
State Higher Education Finance FY 2009, the eigth report in the annual series, continues to provide in depth analysis of the trends in higher education finance on both the state and national levels.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2009
SHEEO Staff, February 2010
State Higher Education Finance FY 2009, the seventh report in the annual series, continues to provide in depth analysis of the trends in higher education finance on both the state and national levels.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2008
SHEEO Staff, July 2009
State Higher Education Finance FY 2008, the sixth report in the annual series, continues to provide in depth analysis of the trends in higher education finance on both the state and national levels.
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State Budgeting for Higher Education in the United States
Kelli Parmley and SHEEO Staff, June, 2009
Higher education budgeting practices in the United States are diverse, complex, and
dynamic. Although states may share similarities, there is no standard budgeting
practice. The Center for National University Finance and Management in Japan
requested a study that would investigate the specifics of the higher education
budgeting process in each of the states. Recognizing the value such a study would have
for its members, the national association of State Higher Education Executive Officers
(SHEEO) created a survey tailored to fit the needs and interests of the SHEEO
community as well as satisfy the requirements of the contract with the Center.
The survey was intended to gather the details necessary to provide a greater
understanding of the factors that most significantly affect decisions states make
regarding their budgets.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2007
SHEEO Staff, July 2008
State Higher Education Finance FY 2007, the fifth report in the annual series, continues to provide in depth analysis of the trends in higher education finance on both the state and national levels.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2006
Principal contributors: Matt Gianneschi Takeshi Yanagiura, March 2007
State Higher Education Finance FY 2006, the fourth report in the annual series, continues to provide in depth analysis of the trends in higher education finance on both the state and national levels.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2006 - Executive Overview
Principal contributors: Matt Gianneschi Takeshi Yanagiura, March 2007
The executive summary from the SHEF FY 2006 publication.
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State Tuition, Fees and Financial Assistance Policies, 2005-06
by Angela Boatman and Hans L'Orange, November 2006
This report is the sixth in a series of updates by SHEEO on this topic. This latest version is a comprehensive assessment of state policies related to public college and university tuition, fees, and financial assistance policies and provides the most current analysis of policies both undertaken and anticipated. The companion web section offers access to the individual response tables.
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VIEW SURVEY RESPONSES BY SPECIFIC SECTION (PDF)

State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2005
Principal contributors: Charlie Lenth, Paul E. Lingenfelter, David L. Wright and Takeshi Yanagiura, October 2006
State Higher Education Finance FY 2005, the third report in the annual series, continues to provide in depth analysis of the trends in higher education finance on both the state and national levels.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2005 - Executive Overview
April 2006
The executive summary from the SHEF FY 2005 publication.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2004 - Executive Overview
August 2005
The executive summary from the SHEF FY 2004 publication.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2004
Principal contributors: Paul E. Lingenfelter, David L. Wright, and Tara M. Bisel, 2005
State Higher Education Finance FY 2004, the second report in the annual series, continues to provide in depth analysis of the trends in higher education finance on both the state and national levels.
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Technical Paper A: Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA) used by SHEF to estimate the effects of inflation on higher education
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Technical Paper B: SHEF's analytical adjustments for interstate differences in the cost of living and the proportion of enrollments among types of institution
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Technical Paper C: Differences between various sources of information on state higher education finance.
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State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) FY2003
Principal contributors: Paul Lingenfelter, Hans P. L'Orange, Susan Winter and David Wright, 2004, $20.00, DocID: 27202
The State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) report is a tool to help policy makers and educators address broad public policy questions such as:
• What level of state funding to colleges and universities is necessary to achieve the educational goals required for the economic and social well-being of the American people?
• What tuition levels are appropriate given the costs of higher education, its benefits to individuals, and the desirability of encouraging participation?
• What amounts and forms of student financial assistance are required to provide meaningful educational opportunities to students from low and moderate-income families?
• To what extent might colleges and universities increase productivity or reduce expenditures without impairing the quality of services to students?

The report also provides three technical essays that discuss: a) the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA) used by SHEF to estimate the effects of inflation on higher education; b) SHEF's analytical adjustments for interstate differences in the cost of living and the proportion of enrollments among types of institution; and c) the differences between various sources of information on state higher education finance. Appendices to the study provide data on individual states and other supporting information.
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State Tuition, Fees and Financial Assistance Policies, 2002-03
by Christopher J. Rasmussen, June 2003, $5.00, DocID: 27051
This report is the fifth in a series of updates by SHEEO on this topic. This latest version is a comprehensive assessment of state policies related to public college and university tuition, fees, and financial assistance policies, a report of the impact of state legislative terms limits on higher education policy, and a new section on state policy responses to the federal education tax credits implemented in 1997. The companion web section offers access to the individual response tables.
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Policies in Sync: Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid for Higher Education
April 2003
Published by WICHE, this compilation of selected papers, written as part of the Changing Direction project sponsored by the Lumina Foundation, addresses the integration of financial aid and financing policies. Paul Lingenfelter, Hans L’Orange, Christopher Rasmussen, and Richard A. Voorhees include a paper which examines what states need to know in order to design and implement policies related to appropriations, tuition, and student financial assistance from the data perspective, entitled "Information Sources for Answering Key Financing and Financial Aid Policy Questions: Current Practice and Future Possibilities."
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Network News: Focus on Finance Policy, Access, and Affordability
April 2002
This issue examines issues related to finance policy, access, and affordability. A commentary by David Longanecker sets the stage and instructs us about why finance policy is important. Following that article is a summary of national studies on the cost of postsecondary education and the impact of student financing on access, and then an analysis by Michael Mullen, who examines changes in accounting standards and reporting mechanisms over time and their impact on state budgetary analysis.
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Financing Higher Education in the New Century: The Third Annual Report From the States
by Mary McKeown-Moak, June 2001, $16.00, DocID: 26826
This is the third edition of an annual report, initiated by SHEEO in 1999, to replace the previous report on state higher education appropriations. Produced in cooperation with MGT of America, this annual report summarizes major financing trends in higher education in the 50 states. It draws upon several national data sources, including the "Grapevine" project at Illinois State University (http://coe.ilstu.edu/grapevine), the American Association of State Budget Officers, and The College Board and presents original data gathered from state higher education finance officers on recent legislative actions and plans.
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Financing Higher Education in the New Century: The Second Annual Report From the States
by Mary McKeown-Moak, March 2000, $16.00, DocID: 26198
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State Higher Education Appropriations
Previous issues are available at the following prices: 1997-98 Edition, $16.00; 1996-97, 1995-96, and 1994-95 Editions, $9.00 each.

The Transition from Business as Usual to Funding for Results: State Efforts to Integrate Performance Measures in the Higher Education Budgetary Process
by Brenda Norman Albright, April 1998, $12.00, DocID: 25692
Using data from the SHEEO survey on performance measures, Albright's paper focuses on strategies for using performance measures in higher education and outlines key principles that can guide states' explorations of performance-based funding. Performance-based funding represents a paradigm shift, from the state meeting the institution's needs to the college or university meeting the state's needs. Performance-based funding changes the funding equation by altering educators' expectations that programs or institutions are entitled to a certain level of resources; instead, it creates rewards for achievement and successful changes in institutional performance. These emerging result-centered strategies, with their strong emphasis on student learning needs, customer service, quality, and productivity, differ in process, focus, and structure from traditional funding approaches.

State Tuition and Fee Policies: 1996-97
by Melodie E. Christal, March 1997, $18.00, DocID: 17666
As costs for students to attend a public college or university continue to rise and are closely scrutinized by legislators and students, higher education policymakers consider the impact of changes to tuition, fees, and financial assistance on access and enrollment. This report, an update of our 1993 report, examines state policies and procedures affecting tuition, fees and financial assistance. The new report - with data provided by the SHEEO membership - includes information on two new areas of interest, technology fees and state college savings plans, as well as state-by-state data in the appendices.

State Funding Formulas for Public Four-year Institutions
by Mary P. McKeown, February 1996, $10.00, DocID: 17667
State funding formulas have been used in this country for 50 years. Despite this long history of use, controversy has surrounded state funding formulas since their inception. This report provides a broad overview of the use of funding formulas; development; advantages and disadvantages; trends; comparisons; and which kinds of formulas are used by the states. An excellent primer on formula funding.

Outcome Based Budgeting: Connecting Budget Development, Allocation and Outcomes
by Thomas Anderes, August 1995, $10.00, DocID: 15934
Outcome Based Budgeting highlights the need to redefine higher education budget development and justification processes, along with the student and financial systems supporting these processes, to better tie into gubernatorial and legislative funding decisions. The demands for increased accountability at all levels of government and limitations in funding support require a more practical and understandable means of justifying higher education budgets. This report offers an alternative structure that is built on defining outcomes that any constituency can understand and as a consequence reduces the mysteries and complexity frequently associated with higher education funding requests.

Standard Setting and Financing in Postsecondary Education: Eight Recommendations for Change in Federal and State Policies
by Arthur M. Hauptman and James R. Mingle, November 1994, $15.00, DocID: 13865
This report examines how the quality control policies of the federal government, the states, and accrediting bodies can be improved. The authors then consider ways to link standard setting and financing methods for three different types of postsecondary education and training: basic skills remediation, non-degree vocational skills acquisition, and degree-granting programs.

Focus on the Budget: Rethinking Current Practice
by Rhonda M. Epper, ed.,, May 1994, $14.00, DocID: 11160
Four essays by state finance officers and other finance experts present a variety of perspectives on the use of state budgets as a policy tool for higher education.

The Tuition Dilemma -- State Policies and Practices in Pricing Public Higher Education
by Charles S. Lenth, December 1993, $15.00, DocID: 10150
Based on a survey of SHEEO agencies, this report examines state tuition policies in terms of underlying tuition philosophies applied to higher education; historical trends in tuition rates; underlying cost factors and tuition indexing; tuition differentials, waivers and student financial aid; and control and use of tuition revenues.

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